David Berlind points out the should-be-obvious (but-not-very-remarked) : Google's Chrome + Gears also wraps mobile (device swarm) operating systems.
Point 1 : the browser is the only reliable application container which runs reliably across different operating systems on phones
Point 2 : the downside of the browser is that it depends on network connection which is unreliable on mobile phones
Point 3 : Gears (which is sneaked into Chrome) solves that.
Links for 2017-03-28 [del.icio.us]
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